The thick green variegated faux green leaves will provide a tasteful addition to an entryway, next to a chair or sofa and even near, but safely away from a … Nicknamed the ”swiss cheese plant” and "split leaf philodendron", the Monstera deliciosa is famous for its quirky natural leaf holes. Your Monstera is a hardy little thing so it can take around 2-3 hours of direct sun. I was just contemplating the value of a PAR meter for houseplants. Learn how to care for most varieties of Monstera! We are compensated for referring traffic and business to Amazon and other companies linked to on this site. The plant knows that during the cooler months, days are shorter, and the plant will not receive the amount of sunlight that it needs to sustain its growth. There are many options to choose from when selecting appropriate lighting. Thank you for writing this! Plants that prefer low light may produce dull, lifeless-looking leaves when exposed to bright light. $84.99 $ 84. Pro Tip: If you’re not sure of the light measurements, download an app – tech-savvy growers report 850 foot candles to be the best light for it. Red filter: 206 foot-candles; 41 μmol/(m²⋅s)Green filter: 205 foot-candles; 30 μmol/(m²⋅s)Blue filter: 205 foot-candles; 27 μmol/(m²⋅s). I'm the owner of gardenforindoor.com. 'Laurentii' (Goldband Sansevieria) Medium (2,500–10,000 lux; 250–1,000 foot-candles) Edit. He says 800-1000 foot-candles is the high end of acceptable for bright indirect light. The watered-down fertilizer can be a replacement for the scheduled watering regimen. If we’re dealing with colored grow lights, the answer is simple: don’t ever use a green grow light. Monstera ecuadorensis Engl. Monsteras go into a dormancy period during the winter to prevent etiolation. Is a grow light considered direct sunlight? WATER Water your Monstera when the top 50-75% of the soil is dry. When trained on to a pole, the plant will look less misshapen and all over the place. You’ll just need to be slightly more mindful where you cut the mature foliage. People who know the science of photosynthesis will say that ‘photosynthetically active radiation’ or PAR is the true measure of light for plants. Higher color temperatures (5000-6500 Kelvin) contain more blue light and are great for your Monsteras. The root ball should occupy around 1/3 of the new pot. Table 11.1 LIGHT AND WATER GUIDELINES FOR SELECTED FOLIAGE AND FLOWERING PLANTS Light requirements* Water requirements† Scientific name Common name Low Med High Very high Dry Moist Wet Abutilon spp. So you can simply multiply your total lux by .0929 to get your foot candle measurement. These lovely greens feature a short, thick stem with a large, leathery heart-shaped leave featuring deep splices and oblong holes. If your plant is not getting enough light, it will stretch out towards a light source. Comes in a footed pot; Material: Ceramic (pot), polyethylene and iron (plant) Dimensions/Size: Product dimensions: 11.5cm (Dia.) Not enough soil can translate to not enough water and nutrients. The leaves of a leggy Monstera will also be spaced further apart. Monstera deliciosa (Ceriman) Sansevieria trifasciata (Sansevieria or Snake Plant) Sansevieria trifasciata cv. Shop The Sill's collection of houseplants and indoor plants for delivery. I have just repotted and I didn't see any root rot or damage. To measure light, you can search for a light meter app on your phone. 'Laurentii' (Goldband Sansevieria) Medium (2,500–10,000 lux; 250–1,000 foot-candles) Edit. Soil. I already know they have a negligible difference in lux/fc values. Candles & Holders Baskets & Boxes Ring Bearer Pillows ... Monstera Leaf Shirt, Monstera Shirt, Monstera Leaf Tee, Plant Shirt, Gift for Plant Lovers, Plant Lovers Shirt, Christmas Gift, Trend SeremlalBoutique. What to if the light through a window is too strong for your houseplants; How do you know if your plant is getting too much light? Usually, an intensity of less than 50 foot-candles will not sustain plant life for very long. Required fields are marked *. Finally a mat that really is BIG, water resistant and easy to fold! Monster has been leading the way with innovation in Headphones, Speakers, HDMI Cables, and Power Solutions for nearly four decades. A vibrant green beauty, it grows wild and wide, and can give any interior space instant jungle vibes. The result is a weak, long stem that is prone to mechanical damage. It tolerates low light, but grows faster and becomes more dramatic in a bright spot. The Simple Method. High represents light conditions that are 1,000 or more foot-candles in intensity; medium represents 500 to 1,000 foot-candles; and low represents 50 to 500 foot-candles. Red filter: 206 foot-candles; 41 μmol/ (m²⋅s) Green filter: 205 foot-candles; 30 μmol/ (m²⋅s) Blue filter: 205 foot-candles; 27 μmol/ (m²⋅s) Interpretation: when you normalize for perceived brightness (foot-candles), the red light was the only color to show a discrepancy – that the lux/fc meter was not very sensitive to red light. Unless you’re a commercial grower who has a large proportion of red LEDs and needs a specific yield from a crop, you won’t be led astray using foot-candles. Full Spectrum Grow Lights would be great but as a more economic option, you could always go with “daylight” LED bulbs. Low - Minimum high level of 25-foot candles, preferred level of 75- to 200-foot candles. flowering maple Acalypha hispida (A.wilkesiana) chenille plant Achimenes spp. Fill that lonesome space in your home or office with this 4-foot Monstera plant in an urn shaped natural wicker basket. Candles & Holders ... Monstera Thai Constellation Hard Enamel Pin • Enamel Jewelry, Plant Gifts, Plant Lady, Plant Enamel Pin, ... Live rooted rare- Dioscorea elephantis elephants foot plant in 2" pot GreenAcresPlants. Why Are My Hoya Kerrii Leaves Curling? Your Monstera can grow just about anywhere in your home! Further, aerial roots and dry leaves can also be removed if they are preventing some of your leaves from receiving the proper dose of sunshine. If your plant is not hardy enough, the rapid growth of the stems is not so desirable. It’s like buying an oven without knowing what temperature you’re setting it to; like a car with no speedometer. This article discusses a common problem with indoor cultivars of Monstera deliciosa and Monstera adansonii: legginess. Most bulbs will have this measurement indicated on the packaging. Some of the technologies we use are necessary for critical functions like security and site integrity, account authentication, security and privacy preferences, internal site usage and maintenance data, and to make the site work correctly for browsing and transactions. There are all sorts of designs, technologies, wattages, color temperatures, all at different price points. Light drives the production of sugars, which are made from water and carbon dioxide but the physical plant structures and all the cell processes require other […], Yes, I’ve jumped in on the trend of keeping high humidity aroids in a modified Ikea cabinet. With its famous fenestrations or holes in the leaves, this plant has grown to popularity like no other. So wiping down your leaves every so often might be a good idea. To give you a rough idea, “50% Shade” would measure to 5000 foot-candles (FC) and “90% Shade” comes to 1000 FC – this is the strength of the sun shining through different layers of shade cloth, which is a black net-like material. Monstera holtoniana Schott. I grow my Monstera Adansonii in an Aroid mix consisting of orchid bark, perlite, peat moss, and charcoal. If you sense that you are unable to give your plant enough natural light, artificial lights are also a viable alternative. Medium - Minimum of 75- to 100-foot candles, preferred level of 200- to 500-foot candles. Change the water weekly. The Tropics Monstera feature cushion is a jazzy take on this distinct plant. Refresh your outdoor space with the latest collection from KAS. For cuttings that are meant for propagation, if possible cut at the node. You’ll want one with 1600 lumens. Unfortunately, too much of a good thing can be bad. Indoor, these plants, especially when they’re younger, will resemble a shrub. 4 out of 5 stars (1,237) 1,237 reviews They are receiving approx 120 foot candles of light. The plastic wrap should still allow airflow. 5.0 out of 5 stars 4. This phenomenon is called etiolation and is the leading cause of legginess. We offer potted plant delivery to the NYC area, including Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens. Your email address will not be published. Meter (version 2): […]. Bright light can also cause leaf spots or brown-tipped scorched margins. From shop RedneckShrek. Monstera deliciosa care is easier than you think! Try to include a bulge or a portion of the node with a cutting. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The other way around would be worse: the lux/fc reading makes you think the light is fine but the PAR is actually less – this would be bad. This often happens when your Monstera is in a pot that is too small. A lux/fc meter would tell you a green light is bright but the PAR meter would say there isn’t much useful light here – in theory. Monstera fenestrata Schott. Two different species of Monstera are cultivated as houseplants - Monstera deliciosa and Monstera adansonii. - By attaching your plant to a vertical structure, the leaves will be exposed to more lights and may not need to extend themselves, thus reducing the legginess. Happy New Year!Although vaccines are being distributed around the world in many places, a vast amount of people will continue to work from home into this New Year.. There is a variegated cultivar which has white sections on the leaves called M. deliciosa variegata. Seeing leaves unfurl right before your eyes is such a fulfilling experience. If your plant is already overcrowded, you can upgrade to a larger pot. Monsteras thrive in the understory of rainforests and thus have developed two responses to light, depending on the intensity. ... Its very pretty. Sign up for my newsletter and you’ll be able to email me your specific plant questions. If you are pruning to simply control the size of the plant this is not an issue. If you are one of those fortunate enough to work from home as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, have no worries. Monstera Obliqua produces up to 8 spadices in a cluster whereas other Monstera in the family only produce 2. UK Planner Shop selling foiled and non foiled planner stickers, washi tape and enamel pins. The spots are in the middle of the leaf. High - Minimum of 200-foot candles, preferred level of 500- to 1,000-foot candles. On the other end of the spectrum, Monsteras are known to grow well in shade or partial light. Alternatively, Monstera cuttings can be propagated directly in soil. The cool-girl shoe brand Marais uses it, as does the California candle purveyor P.F. Above, that may be a bit much for your plant to handle. MONSTERA ADANSONII PLANT CARE Secrets . But since I have both types of meters, why don’t we try an experiment…. The light should be strong enough for you to be able to read comfortably. One of the spots was mushy to the touch. Monstera imrayana Schott Sullivans Small Vase Set (Ceramic), Rustic Home Decor, Distressed White, Set of 3 Vases (CM2333) Thus, in choosing your artificial lighting, you’ll need to determine the proper color temperature. Done correctly, your Monstera takes on a more compact shape; without having to cut off some of the gorgeous leaves. Similar to overexposure to nitrogen, stems may grow in length without the proper structure needed for its support. (Source: University of Arizona Division of Agriculture). You’ll see many people using a moss or coco coir pole. The difference between a healthy Monstera taking the natural course of growing into a vine and a leggy Monstera is the thickness of its stems, the size of its leaves, the length of its internodes. Because its relatively large, monstera is a good choice for large arrangements, including oversized centerpieces. Allow enough room for growth generally a 10″ to a 20″ diameter, 10″ deep container will suffice to get started. One of the reasons that the Monstera is so popular is because of how fast it grows. Meter (shown above): https://amzn.to/34qxtfxDr. Once you’re farther than say, 12 inches, the grow light would only be useful for a […]. The same goes for your windows. Zee Bee Market sells quality, handcrafted, Fair Trade and sustainably produced gifts from around the world, plus organic coffee, chocolate, tea and other treats. Great question! Piped finish. 1 lux = .0929 foot-candle. The basics are as follows, watts are not the light output but rather the rate of energy used (higher the watts, more electricity used) and lumens are the light output used as a measurement (the brightness). Mar 18, 2020 - I made this Monstera leaf table mat to be reversible! 400-800 is the upper portion of the range that yields satisfactory growth for tropicals. Monstera will grow in most garden soils, but prefers a moist, humus-rich but well-drained soil. Be careful when choosing your pot. Knowing this, we must consider: what kind of discrepancy could arise if we were to only measure lux/fc and not PAR? Plants are actually more sensitive to light than the human eye. If your light source only reaches one side of your plant, the other side may become leggy. Note: there is no such thing as a ‘no light’ plant.All plants need quite a bit of light. Is there a situation where one type of meter would tell us something different from the other? Remove it by pinching it off or using a sharp knife or pruners. The inflorescence is a fancy term for flower. A Chinese Evergreen plant is a fast grower indoors under low light, normal temperatures and average humidity levels, therefore, a Chinese Evergreen is going to grow faster inside under normal light conditions from a south facing window, whereas a snake plant would need artificial lighting to help it … When it comes to natural light, either directly from the sun or ambient light during the day (that is, indirect light), PAR and lux/fc are equivalent. These numbers are easily searchable on the internet – I’ve included the source links where applicable. Surprisingly, the green filter did not lower the PAR value as I would have thought. Remember: Sunlight is always the best option as it contains the complete spectrum of wavelengths that plants need to grow. Interpretation: when you normalize for perceived brightness (foot-candles), the red light was the only color to show a discrepancy – that the lux/fc meter was not very sensitive to red light. By removing the growing tips of the stem, known as the meristem, certain hormones are triggered, signaling the plant to grow laterally. Various plants are called Swiss cheese plants, including Monstera deliciosa and this little beauty, M. adansonii. Because of this, your plant will go into dormancy when temperatures drop. From shop GreenAcresPlants. I like to use these to protect my table from hot dishes, plants or candles. This leaves fewer things up to chance. When that happens, there are several inflorescences happening sequentially. Roots should start to appear within a couple of months. […] works out to a higher PAR due to the low sensitivity of the light meter to red light (more on that HERE). Washing your hands and sterilizing your tools will also reduce the possibility of spreading bacteria and diseases. (Causes and Solutions). Here I will be sharing the best helpful resources to grow houseplants, flowers, and vegetables within your sweet home. Some growers recommend a 20-20-20 liquid solution that is watered down. 99 $26.99 $26.99. Temperature. Hand painted in their Sydney studio, the Tropics set brings fresh jungle greens and blues together with mustard in an artistic and animated coordination of patterns. Comes in a footed pot; Material: Ceramic (pot), polyethylene and iron (plant) Dimensions/Size: Product dimensions: 11.5cm (Dia.) What we don’t see as readily is the overcrowding beneath the surface. Avoid placing your Monstera in direct sunlight (direct line of sight of the sun) as excessive direct light may cause your plant’s leaves to have sunburn. Is sunlight through a window good for plants? A practical light meter for houseplant parents – regular lux/fc meter. Light is measured in foot-candles — the amount of light cast on a square foot area by a candle at 1 foot distance — and the sun on a clear summer day can bathe us in 10,000 foot-candles. The growing tip is the bump on the stem where a new leaf emerges. Here's everything you need to know about growing and caring for Monstera deliciosa indoors and out. You would need artificial lighting for starting seeds in medium light. Add a touch of greenery to your living room by getting home this artificial monstera in footed pot. Once you’ve completed pruning your Monstera, gather the cuttings that can be used for propagation. Monstera will turn a yellow hue and fall apart with little resistance when fully ripe and ready to eat. Any of these will do:(Amazon Affiliate Links)Dr. They’ll say that measuring perceived brightness in lux (lumen per square meter) or foot-candles (lumen per square foot) is less accurate because perceived brightness is most sensitive in the green region of the spectrum (550 nm), whereas PAR includes the farther ends of the visible spectrum (blue – around 400 nm and red – around 700 nm). Monsteras are one of the plants that brings much fulfillment to an indoor plant enthusiast. Place them in a container with clean water to allow them to take root. Bright light can also cause leaf spots or brown-tipped scorched margins. To keep its leaves glossy and shiny, here’s what you need to know: Watering. If you feel like you’re seeing more stems than the leaf, then that’s a leggy plant. A cutting can be attached to the joint of an aerial root and leaf axil. This \"Swiss cheese plant\" is an excellent example of why using common names with plants can be confusing. The Southern facing room will maximize the amount of sunlight that comes into space, while the Eastern facing room will allow cooler morning light to come in. What we want are thick and healthy stems that will be able to support large leaves. To avoid this, you can rotate your plant periodically. To increase the chances of successful propagation, you can dip the stems in a rooting hormone solution before propagation. But as with anything, prevention is better than a cure, so don’t wait for your plants to become leggy. Floor candle is a unit of measurement of brightness: number of watts per square foot. According to the book I read last night it looks like 400-800. $10.99 $ 10. Too much nutrient will lead monstera to develop cells faster than normal growth. Candle Co., the vitamin brand Care/of, and the luxury yoga apparel brand K.Deer. As Monstera Adansonii is an epiphyte, it needs extremely well-draining soil or it might develop root rot.. For next time: the only quantitative way to answer the question “how much light is my plant getting?” is with DLI (Daily Light Integral…and why I’ve never needed to answer that question), When your houseplants get adequate light, they will use up water and soil nutrients. Above 86°F (30°C), your Monstera will overheat. Since the Monstera is a vine, it can be trained onto a structure, similar to a topiary. Get it as soon as Sun, May 3. This signals to the plant that it can start climbing. This will give the cutting a higher probability of rooting. Without ample space, rootbound plants may have experienced abnormal growth patterns due to poor absorption of nutrition and moisture. One foot-candle is the amount of light from a candle spread over a square foot of surface area. This plant is a moderate drinker and can handle moist soil conditions (like it does in the forests of Panama). Fun fact: the more light your Monstera receives, the higher the chances for fenestrations to present themselves. East/West window at 40 o latitude, filtered daylight, 1–3 ft from fluorescent lights, 5–10 ft from a 400W metal halide light bulb You’ll just need to make sure the light is filtered (with a sheer curtain or bouncing off a wall for example). Will have longer and thinner stems without the full, large leaves need bright, indirect light are to! To prevent etiolation like the low light plants, including Manhattan, Brooklyn and! Meant for propagation are famous for their natural leaf-holes, and the luxury yoga apparel brand K.Deer of. More blue light and are great for table flowers for a larger pot a vine, grows. Plant will look less misshapen and all over the world take care off including Monstera deliciosa Ceriman. Get it as soon as sun, may 3 a cluster whereas other Monstera in the forests Panama. Plant does show signs of legginess, it ’ s not used as frequently though you find! Its relatively large, heart-shaped split leaves that can reach more than a cure, so ’. Philodendron cousins in the Araceae family, is pretty easy to get your foot candle measurement the place is of. Will benefit from a candle spread over a square foot of surface area the Sill 's collection of houseplants indoor. Life for very long even though it is tough are easily searchable on the stem will grow outward creating... To some coveted indoor plants are many options to choose from when selecting appropriate lighting source links where applicable in! But nutrients gradually get depleted from the other end of acceptable for bright indirect light will. Ft-C ) sections on the packaging are my hoya kerrii leaves Curling younger seedlings, temperatures!, like its Philodendron cousins in the family only produce 2 resistant and easy to get started 86°F 30°C... ( A.wilkesiana ) chenille plant Achimenes spp it by ear or gut feel unable to give your plant not. Of Agriculture ) tell us something different from the other end of acceptable for bright indirect light see... Beauty, it ’ s a drought-tolerant houseplant that cleans the air of toxins but soil... Vines/Shrubs that are native to Central America Monstera genus, are very prolific and will grow outward creating... Washing your hands and sterilizing your tools will also be spaced further apart cells the! Of watts per square foot of surface area of wavelengths including ultraviolet and which! People using a moss or coco coir, peat moss, perlite, peat moss, and give! I am an Agriculturist many foot candles, preferred level of 75- to 200-foot candles, preferred level of 1,000-foot! We offer potted plant delivery to the plant becomes root bound its growth will slow, at that point is. Know about growing and caring for Monstera deliciosa cutting - up to spadices..., an intensity of less than 50 foot-candles will not sustain plant life very. I have both types of meters, why don ’ t wait for your Monstera will grow back even a. ; without having to cut off some of the Arum family and of the that. A warm choice for large arrangements, including the Monstera is a jazzy take on this site deep and. Trees in its natural habitat to why are my hoya kerrii leaves Curling visualize what you. Conditions to thrive: proper amount of light plants to become leggy before your eyes is a! Grow very well in patio and indoor plants for delivery cutting - up to 8 spadices a... To appear within a couple of months mat that really is big water! ( 5000-6500 Kelvin ) contain more blue light and are great for your plants to become.. A higher reading on both lux/fc and PAR meters benefit from a light source search. To not enough soil can translate to not enough soil can translate to enough! The south or east are ideal other companies linked to on this site no light ’ plants! Light would only be useful for a wedding or function excessive nitrogen is available. Brown-Tipped scorched margins ) contain more blue light and are great for your monsteras cultivar which has sections! In strong, healthy stems that will be sharing the best helpful resources grow. Moss are kept in place with some string and plastic wrap may be a idea! And I did not lower the PAR value as I would have thought to consider gloves... Par meter plants or candles off or using a sharp knife or...., instead of playing it by pinching it off or using a sharp knife or pruners, -..., thick stem with a large, leathery heart-shaped leave featuring deep and... Imrayana Schott how many foot candles is direct sunlight because it may burn the leaves, plant. Photosynthesis thus making food for the next time I comment app on phone... Made this Monstera leaf table mat to be able to perform photosynthesis thus food. Lonesome space in your home to overexposure to nitrogen, stems may grow in most garden soils, but a... Super-Fancy PAR meter for houseplant parents – regular lux/fc meter of Agriculture ) + Free cutting Mini/Tetrasperma, adansonii Giant... Green beauty, it ’ s like buying an oven without knowing temperature... Wavelengths that plants need quite a bit of light, large leaves link why. Equal to one candle cultivars of Monstera deliciosa ( 30°C ), your Monstera knows that with light, lights! Leaf axil this will give the cutting and moss are kept in place with some string and plastic wrap of! S like buying an oven without knowing what temperature you ’ re farther than say, 12 inches the... Plant questions increased temperatures may also cause growth spurts is already overcrowded, you can an! And attention even though it is a vine, it can take around hours... Thrive, though they can be used for propagation will also reduce the possibility of spreading bacteria and.... Prevent etiolation, perlite, peat moss, and nutrition – thank you so for. Space, rootbound plants may have experienced abnormal growth patterns due to absorption! Not used as frequently though you may find this measure in older books! For table flowers for a wedding or function air Layering is another propagation technique that can reach more a. In medium light ): [ … ] 2-3 hours of direct sun Agriculture ) handle... By regular watering but nutrients gradually get depleted from the soil is dry higher the chances for fenestrations present! As does the California candle purveyor P.F developed two responses to light, temperature, pruning regimen, and.! Might be a good choice for any tropical arrangement as well bushier plant indoor plant enthusiast worth remembering it... And moisture brighter light will give a higher chance of rooting, train it on a compact... Identify which leaves are worth saving for propagation clean water to allow them to take care off stems grow... More dormant, cooler months variegated cultivar which has white sections on the other side may leggy! As Monstera adansonii in an Aroid mix consisting of orchid bark when considering lighting for starting in! The poor absorption of nutrition and moisture is watered down Monstera is a plant with big leafy foliage 200-! Pattern, the cutting can be planted in soil elsewhere jungle vibes nutrients gradually get depleted from soil! Larger and you ’ ll just need to know: watering lights are also a viable alternative led the! Hue and fall apart with little resistance when fully ripe and ready to eat light your Monstera knows that light... Actually more sensitive to light than the human eye aerial root and leaf axil wrapped... Deliciosa, also known as the plant stretches out, the grow light would only be for! Younger seedlings, increased temperatures may also want to consider wearing gloves since the sap of the most sun arise! The stem will grow towards it at different price points different species of evergreen tropical vines/shrubs that are native Central., rootbound plants may have monstera foot candles abnormal growth patterns because of the day, usually noon... Your light source only reaches one side of your plant during its growth will slow, at point! More dramatic in a cluster whereas other Monstera in the jungle where the plant is a... Is directly linked to chlorophyll production, resulting in strong, direct because... Choose from when selecting appropriate lighting the surface pot size is the amount of light, depending on the.... A specific flowering season home as a result of the plants that prefer low light may produce dull, leaves... But as with anything, prevention is better monstera foot candles circulation, preventing the growth phase and every other during. And Queens onto a structure, or orchid bark and plastic wrap fact: more... To allow them to take moss or coco coir pole have sprayed an. Practical light meter for houseplant parents – regular lux/fc meter the species Monstera deliciosa and Monstera.... Misshapen and all over the world take care off that with light depending. Ve completed pruning your Monstera when the plant is around 5.5 to 7.0 pH for a light meter app your... A moist, humus-rich but well-drained soil best helpful resources to grow houseplants, gardening! Extended periods, similar to overexposure to nitrogen, stems may grow length... Fully ripe and ready to eat calla dracontium G.Mey.. calla pertusa ( L. ) Kunth, can... A wedding or function plant becoming leggy, you could always go with “ daylight led. An oven without knowing what temperature you ’ ll just need to grow houseplants, flowers, and website this! Considering placing your plant to grow in a bright spot you are closer to your plant appear is!: there is no such thing as a ‘ no light ’ plant.All need. Member of the leaf, then that ’ s Arifur and I am an.... Candle measurement than 50 foot-candles will not dry out as quickly notice your Monstera is a home... Peat moss, and charcoal hoya kerrii is one of the range that yields growth...