[111] Currently, 16 castes of Lingayats have been occorded the OBC status by the Central Governement. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lingayatism&oldid=998471160, Articles with disputed statements from March 2018, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Banajiga a)Shilawant Banajiga b)Adi Banajiga, a)weavers of men's cloth b)weavers of women's cloth. Most of Kerala's 33.3 million people (in 2011) are of Malayali (Malayalam language speaking) ethnicity. Effective kin are those closely related by descent and marriage, and mate selection among such kin is preferential. Their social structure is populistic, with birth and occupation intertwined. Harmondsworth: Penguin. This movement shared its roots in the ongoing Bhakti movement, particularly the Shaiva Nayanars traditions, over the 7th- to 11th-century. Lingayats worship him as a symbolic manifestation of the universe and call him their personal God, istalinga. High-level probe ordered into Kerala journalist’s death . Theatre ... B.S. [54][55], After being placed in the shudra category in the 1881 census, Lingayats demanded a higher caste status. [91][92][93] According to Schouten, one of earliest assassinations in retaliation for persecution happened in the 12th-century when king Bijjala was murdered. Basavanna was a 12th-century reformer and poet; CM wants his pictures installed in all government offices. [web 8] Veerashaivas further "owe allegiance to various religious centres (mutts), [while] the Lingayats mostly follow their own gurus. Orientation However, states Schouten, the early texts of Lingayats give different accounts on who ordered the assassination leading to doubts about the trustworthiness of these historic texts. [73][75] However, both in Lingayatism and various flavors of Vaishnavism such as Mahima Dharma, the idea of Shunya is closer to the Hindu concept of metaphysical Brahman, rather than to the Śūnyatā concept of Buddhism. ." [44][45][51], In early decades of the 19th-century, the Lingayats were described by British officials such as Francis Buchanan as a conglomeration of Hindu castes with enormous diversity and eclectic, egalitarian social system that accepted converts from all social strata and religions. It is to be worn on the chest, over the seat of the indwelling deity within the heart. The community has a strong presence in the state especially in the north. "[web 7], According to India Today, while "Veerashaivas' claim that the two communities are one and the same," orthodox Lingayats claim that they are different. "[web 7] Sri Sharanbasava Devaru further states that Veerashaivism "started gaining importance only after 1904 with some mutts mixing Veerashaivism with Lingayatism. The use of horoscopes is conspicuously absent among the Lingayats. [64] Schouten calls this as a synthesis of Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita and Shankara's Advaita traditions, naming it Shakti-Vishishtadvaita, that is monism fused with Shakti beliefs. This group formed in the 12th century by Basava, a philosopher and a social reformer. Some people wear it on the chest or around the body using a thread. Others opposed the campaign, noting that "the population of Lingayats would be mentioned separately alongside those of Arya Samajists and a few others considered as subgroups of Hinduism in the final Census figures. The economy of a Lingayat village, which is predominantly agricultural, reflects the Lingayat culture. "[web 8] Veerashaivas further "owe allegiance to various religious centres (mutts), [while] the Lingayats mostly follow their own gurus. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. [42], The Virasaivas were an important part of the Vijayanagara empire army. Since the collective solidarity of the kin group is the prime value in the community, family autonomy and privacy are never its concerns. Lingayats believe in kayaka (work) and the transformative potential of "one's work in the here and now". Basava and the Lingayat Religion. [69] According to R. Blake Michael, rebirth and ways to end rebirth was extensively discussed by Basava, Allama Prabhu, Siddharameshawar and other religious saints of Lingayatism. Such interdependence is seen on occasions of births, weddings, fairs, and festivals. In an attempt to win the support of the dominant Lingayat community in Karnataka, Congress Chief Minister Siddaramaiah has issued orders for installation of pictures of Basavanna, a 12th-century social reformer from the community, in all government offices … Kinship Terminology. Inheritance. [17], The terms Lingayatism and Veerashaivism have been used synonymously. Dharwar: The Literary Committee, Lingayat Education Association. He is formless, qualityless, and an embodiment of love and compassion. Its first poetics, Kavirajamarga, and first grammar, Bhasa Bhusan, were written in the early ninth and eleventh centuries, respectively, and its literary history spans well over 1,000 years. Due to their roots in the traditional schools, the gurusthalada monasteries were more conservative, while the viraktas "constituted the true Virasaiva monastic organisation, shaped by the ideals of Basava and his contemporaries. The Lingayat text Sunyasampadane grew out of the scholarly discussions in an Anubhava Mantapa, and according to Bill Aitken, these were "compiled at the Vijayanagara court during the reign of Praudha Deva Raya". Sadāchāra – Attention to vocation and duty, and adherence to the seven rules of conduct issued by. Basavanna rejected gender or social discrimination, and caste distinctions,[37] as well as some extant practices such as the wearing of sacred thread,[33] and replaced this with the ritual of wearing Ishtalinga necklace, with an image of the Shiva Liṅga,[38] by every person regardless of his or her birth, to be a constant reminder of one's bhakti (loving devotion) to god Shiva. ", Arguments centre on the wording of legislation, such as "This Act applies to a Hindu by religion... including Veerashaiva, a Lingayat," making a distinction between Lingayats and Veerashaivas. [105] It rejected various forms of ritualism and the uncritical adherence to any text including the Vedas. They are also called Virasaivas because of their deep love and commitment to their God, "the Omnipresent and Ever Compassionate.". Its political history records the successful mobilization of Lingayats in achieving power at the village level, in unifying a single united Karnataka that was divided among several adjoining states prior to 1956, and in promoting village links with the center. Subsistence and Commercial Activities. Though lingadharane can be performed at any age, it is usually performed when a fetus in the womb is 7–8 months old. [Editor's Note: In this article the established spellings of Kota words have been retained, al…, Serbs Kerala's people are most densely settled in the coastal region, leaving the east… [44] After the collapse of the Vijayanagara empire, the Lingayat Keladi/Ikkeri dynasty ruled the coastal Karnataka till the invasion and their defeat by Hyder Ali seeking a Mysore-based Sultanate. Akka Mahadevi, Channabasavanna and Basavanna himself were participants in the Anubhava Mantapa.[15]. The istalinga is an oval-shaped emblem symbolising Parashiva, the absolute reality and icon of their spirituality. Since the dead person is believed to have attained the status of Shiva, the body is washed, clothed, decked with flowers, worshiped, and carried in a procession to the burial yard accompanied by singing in praise of Shiva. [65], While they accept the concept of transmigration of soul (metempsychosis, reincarnation),[66] they believe that Lingayats are in their last lifetime,[66][67] and believe that will be reunited with Shiva after their death by wearing the lingam. ETHNONYM: Panjabi Chekki, D. A. For example, the artisan community in the village has nearly closed its doors to local customers, as it now seeks new opportunities in the nearby city market in its traditional specialities. According to India Today, "Veerashaivas claim that the two communities are one and the same," while orthodox Lingayats claim that they are different. Yediyurappa pampers dominant communities by creating caste-based authorities in an attempt to win elections and widen his sphere of influence and counter the moves of the BJP central leadership against him. About Veerashaiva Lingayat Kerala About Veerashaiva Lingayatism, also known as Veerashaivism,Lingayat religion is an independent religion started by Guru Basaveshwara in 12th Century; it has very scientific ethic, practices and most progressive values. Among urbanites they are expected to live independently. The Kannada language is classified in the Dravidian Family, and the Lingayats fully identify with it. Occupational and social mobility are open to everyone. "[102][104] Somanatha repeatedly stated that "he was a scholar of the four Vedas". In the 21st century, some Lingayats have sought legal recognition as a religion distinct from Hinduism and Veerashaivas,[6][web 1][note 3] a request which has gained political support from the Congress-led Karnataka government, but is opposed by others. 4, 81-124. [web 12] While the Congress party supports the calls for Lingayatism as a separate religion,[web 13] the BJP regards Lingayats as Veerashaivas and Hindus. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The term has been derived from Lingavantha in Kannada. The census of 1981 places the Karnataka population at 37,135,714 with a population density of 194 persons per square kilometer. Her parents and siblings fulfilled their moral obligations to her, especially in times of crisis. [10][95] Many rural Lingayat communities include the images of Shiva, Parvati and Ganesha in their wedding invitations, while Ganesha festivities are observed by both rural and urban Lingayats in many parts of Karnataka. All related families are held together by a sense of mutuality and complementarity. The Linga is wrapped in a cloth housed in a small silver and wooden box. The Lingayat people are known for wearing a linga, an object representing a god; in this case, Shiva. Beals, Alan R. (1967). Lingayats do not consider the world as maya, an illusion, and reject the Hindu notions of karma, rebirth, purity, and pollution. View the profiles of people named Veerashaiva Lingayat Kerala. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Nuclear or conjugal, the family does not live in isolation, as it is always embedded in the larger kin group. Basava Panchami (known as Nag Panchami) on this day Basava merged with God, Neelamma Shashti (next day of Basava Panchami) on this day Neelagangambike merged with God, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 14:52. Stanford: Stanford University Press. [1][note 6] Lingayatism emphasises qualified monism, with philosophical foundations similar to those of the 11th–12th-century South Indian philosopher Ramanuja. This concept progressively evolves:[64], Thus bhakti progresses from external icon-aided loving devotional worship of Shiva to deeper fusion of awareness with abstract Shiva, ultimately to advaita (oneness) of one's soul and god for moksha. [web 3][web 2], Lingayatism is generally considered a Hindu sect as[7][web 1][note 4] their beliefs include many Hindu elements. Lingayats have been estimated to be about 20% of Karnataka's population and about 10% of Maharashtra's population. Jan Peter Schouten states that it tends towards monotheism with Shiva as the godhead, but with a strong awareness of the monistic unity of the Ultimate Reality. It represents, in fact, partly a selective blending and partly a selective conflict Between the two. Lingayat Matrimonial; Lingayatism is a Hindu religious sect, or according to Lingayats, an independent religion in India. Pradesh in the east, Tamil Nadu in the southeast, Kerala in the southwest, Goa in the northwest and Arabian Sea to the west. [6][note 5] Worship is centered on Shiva as the universal god in the iconographic form of Ishtalinga. [1][note 6] The Lingayats always wear the Ishtalinga held with a necklace. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lingayat, "Lingayat Their work ethic flows directly from their ethic of kayaka (rites and observances performed with the body, hence the spiritual value of labor); their role in community building comes from their practice of dashoha (community sharing of one's own labor), and their identification with society at large from their notion of aikya (being with the linga is being with society). Dharwar: Karnatak University. It comes very close to a populistic tradition, with its own institutions and values rooted in the 27,000 Villages and some 300 towns of Karnataka. Bhrityāchāra – Compassion towards all creatures. [web 5] In contrast, the virakta monastic organisation upheld "the ideals of Basava and his contemporaries. [33][34][web 1] He was a 12th-century Hindu philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet in the Shiva-focused Bhakti movement and a social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri king Bijjala II (reigned 1157–1167) in Karnataka, India. Lingayats have been estimated to be about 20% of Karnataka's population[7][note 18] In March 2018, the Nagamohan Das committee advised "to form a separate religion status for the Lingayats community." Lingayatism is a Shaivite Hindu religious tradition in India. [103], Lingayatism considers the Vedas as a means, but not the sanctimonious end. However, the date of retrieval is often important. These days "love" Marriages are heard of even in the countryside. Retrieved December 20, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lingayat. ", Bairy: "The Panchacharya tradition, the Mathas which belonged to it and the (upper) castes which owed their allegiance to them were accused by those espousing the Viraktha tradition of actively collaborating with the Brahmins in order to defame the 'progressive' twelfth century movement, which apparently spoke against caste distinctions and often incurred the displeasure of the upper castes within the Lingayath fold. Lingayats are therefore involved in all sectors of the economy. They are called Lingayats because they worship istalinga, the symbol of Shiva, and they always wear it around their necks or across their chests. "Pervasive Factionalism in Namhalli." [14] The term Lingayat is based on the practice of both genders of Lingayats wearing an iṣṭaliṅga contained inside a silver box with a necklace all the time. Leiden: E. J. Brill. In this narrative, Basava was regarded as a reviver of this ancient teaching. [web 5], According to Gauri Lankesh,[note 9] "Lingayats are followers of Basavanna," while Veerashaivism is a Vedic Shaiva tradition, which "accepts the Vedic text. 200-228. Wikimedia Commons. Kerala; Entertainment. 3.Those who wear both Lingam and Brahmanical cord. This is a useful craft for them to possess, rather than a learned profession. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. Significant populations are also found in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana bordering Karnataka, as well as Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Gujarat. It means "work is heaven" or "to work [Kayakave] is to be in the Lord's Kingdom [Kailasa]". In 2018, both Maski and Basavakalyan were with Congress. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Their neighbors, such as the Hausa, Gbari, Birnin Gwari, Yoruba,…, Lingeman, Richard R. 1931- (Niles Chignon, William Randolph Hirsch, a joint pseudonym, Richard Roberts Lingeman), https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lingayat. INTRODUCTION. The Ishtalinga is a symbolism for Lord Shiva. Monographs and Theoretical Studies in Sociology and Anthropology in Honour of Nels Anderson, no. Their centers of pilgrimage are at Kalyan, Ulive, and Srisaila, the places where Basava, his nephew Cennabasava, Allama Prabhu, and Akka Mahadevi are laid to eternal rest. He hoped to eat into the vote share of the BJP which has backed heavily on the Lingayat votes. Her loss of a share in her parental family property, however, was met through adequate gifts of jewelry and gold during her marriage and on successive visits to the natal family. [87] According to Jan Peter Schouten, this doctrine is philosophically rooted in the more ancient So'ham Sanskrit oneness mantra related to Shiva, and which means "I am He". In 1167 the Veerashaivas were repressed, and most of them left Kalyāna, Bijjala's new capital, spreading Basava's teachings into a wider area in southern India. The first section is a porch with a raised platform, usually open but sometimes closed, which is used for visitors and resting. Lingayats form 17 per cent of the state’s total population. The beliefs and behavioral patterns of Lingayats are expounded in the compositions of Basava, whom they regard as their founding father as well as a dominant influence in the works of his colleagues. The local artisan groups and labor depended upon the farmers for their survival. 20 Dec. 2020 . Lingayat kinship may be described as multilateral with partly descriptive and partly generic kin terms. [14][21] The Lingayats were also anti-Brahmin as evidenced by the polemics against the Brahmins in early Veerashaiva literature. Upon attaining the age of 8–11 years, the child receives Diksha from the family Guru to know the proper procedure to perform pooja of ishtalinga. [2] Basava's nephew Channabasava organised the community and systematised Virasaiva theology, moving the Virashaiva community toward the mainstream Hindu culture. Some scholars translate Kayaka as "worship, ritual", while others translate it as "work, labour". [13] Today, Lingayats, along with Shaiva Siddhanta followers, Naths, Pashupaths, Kapalikas and others constitute the Shaiva population. [58] In the 1910s, the narrative of Basava and Allama as the "founding pillars" of the Lingayats gained new importance for the identity of parts of the Lingayat-community, with other parts responded with rejection of this "resurrection. Father's brothers and sisters, for example, are described as "big" or "little" "fathers" and "mothers" depending on relative age; terms for paternal and maternal grandfathers and grandmothers are treated in the same way. Linguistic Affiliation. ." Lingayats are by far the largest in population in Karnataka.They are also in prominent numbers in some parts of Maharashtra, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.This is a list of notable Lingayats: [1] [2] [3] [53] In the 1871 and the 1881 colonial era census of British India, Lingayats were listed as shudras. [112], Ikkeri Nayakas, Keladi dynasty (16th-18th century), Separate religious identity (21st century), Roshen Dalal (2010): "The linga is worshipped by all Shaivites, but it is the special emblem of the Lingayats or Virashaivas, a Shaivite sect. [39], After initially supporting Basava, king Bijjala II disagreed with Basava's rejection of caste distinctions. Lingayats constitute 17% of the total population in Karnataka. Lingayat priests (called ayya or swami ) are also astrologers and medicine men, often dispensing herbal remedies to sick villagers. [73][76], Sripati, a Veerashaiva scholar, explained Lingayatism philosophy in Srikara Bhashya, in Vedanta terms, stating Lingayatism to be a form of qualified non-dualism, wherein the individual Atman (soul) is the body of God, and that there is no difference between Shiva and Atman (self, soul), Shiva is one's Atman, one's Atman is Shiva. There have been nine chief ministers from the community. [70] According to Schrader, Lingayats believe that if they live an ethical life then this will be their last life, and they will merge into Shiva, a belief that has fed the confusion that they do not believe in rebirth. Religion and Society among the Lingayats of South India. ", sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSchouten1995 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlake_Michael1992 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFIshwaran1981 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBairy2013 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAhmadIshwaran1973 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFIshwaran1980 (, Kalburgi & Lankesh questioned Lingayats, Modi & Rahul courted them, "Enne hole,Tarikere Taluk, Chikkamagaluru Dist, Karnataka", "Yediyurappa holds off plan to add Lingayats in OBC central list after Amit Shah intervention", "Cabinet defers decision on inclusion of Lingayats in OBC", "Lingayat SCs, OBCs may not welcome minority tag", http://gazetteer.kar.nic.in/gazetteer/pdf/1987-4-0/Belgaum_1987_Chapter3_People.pdf, "Lingayat is an independent religion: Seer", Why Lingayat-Veerashaiva feud is bad news for BJP in Karnataka, "A medieval poet bedevils India's most powerful political party", "How Religious Minority Status to Lingayats would Impact Karnataka Elections 2018", Now, government bats for separate religion for Lingayats, ‘Veerashaivas are Lingayats and they are Hindus, no question of separate religion’: Yeddyurappa, "Will welcome it if CM contests from north Karnataka, says Yeddyurappa", "Karnataka recommends minority status for Lingayat community: Will it impact Congress, BJP in upcoming polls? They do not worship stone images and the deities of the desi tradition. [16] This was objected and ridiculed by a Brahmin named Ranganna who said that Lingayats were not Shaiva Brahmins given their eclectic occupations that included washermen, traders, farmers and others, as well as their exogamous relationships with the royal family. [52] However, the British officials also noted the endogamous tradition and hereditary occupations of many Lingayats, which made their classification difficult. By and large, the population has an impact on 100 seats out of 224 Assembly constituencies. The dead body is buried in a sitting position in a grave with its face towards East or North. Religious Beliefs. Kannada Lingayat Matrimonial; Lingayat is the largest population of Karnataka with 21% of the total population in the state. Shivapur: A South Indian Village. The climate is basically a tropical monsoon type and the temperatures change periodically, varying between 15° and 40° C. Demography. 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