Grain definition, a small, hard seed, especially the seed of a food plant such as wheat, corn, rye, oats, rice, or millet. googletag.cmd.push(function() { Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. Video shows what wheat means. Wheat buyers use these to decide which wheat to buy, as each class has special uses, and producers use them to decide which classes of wheat will be most profitable to cultivate. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, Wheat definition: Wheat is a cereal crop grown for food. "noPingback": true, }, [125], There are substantial differences in wheat farming, trading, policy, sector growth, and wheat uses in different regions of the world. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot2_flex' }}, The major diseases in temperate environments include the following, arranged in a rough order of their significance from cooler to warmer climates: eyespot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch (also known as glume blotch), yellow or stripe rust, powdery mildew, Septoria tritici blotch (sometimes known as leaf blotch), brown or leaf rust, Fusarium head blight, tan spot and stem rust. Two tractors deploying a sealed storage method for newly harvested wheat. googletag.enableServices(); Agcapita Farmland Investment Partnership - Peak oil v. Peak Wheat, July 1, 2008, Credit Suisse First Boston, Higher Agricultural Prices: Opportunities and Risks, November 2007, Food Production May Have to Double by 2030 - Western Spectator, Learn how and when to remove this template message, International wheat production statistics, "Crops/World Total/Wheat/Area Harvested/2014 (pick list)", "World food situation: FAO cereal supply and demand brief", "Crops/World Total/Wheat/Production Quantity/2014 (pick list)", "Food security: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people", "Review: The contribution of wheat to human diet and health", Community Research and Development Information Service, "Genetic markers signal increased crop productivity potential", "The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms", "μCT trait analysis reveals morphometric differences between domesticated temperate small grain cereals and their wild relatives". },{ { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '705055' }}, },{ White wheats have a lower content of phenolics and browning enzymes, and are generally less astringent in taste than red wheats. [10] Globally, it is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals[12] but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_l", "en"); {code: 'ad_rightslot2', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot2', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot2' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples var pbDesktopSlots = [ In 1998, the price at harvest of a 60 pounds (27 kg) bushel[114] was $2.68 per. These varieties can improve crop productivity in rain-fed dry-land wheat farms. Its 13% protein content is mostly gluten (75-80% of the protein in wheat). Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms ('sports') of wheat were preferentially chosen by farmers. 'increment': 0.01, dfpSlots['btmslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/btmslot', [[300, 250], 'fluid'], 'ad_btmslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_btmslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); This article is about the plant. "login": { Wheat definition is - a cereal grain that yields a fine white flour used chiefly in breads, baked goods (such as cakes and crackers), and pastas (such as macaroni or spaghetti), and is important in animal feeds. iasLog("criterion : cdo_c = " + ["science_geographic_locales", "business_financial_industrial_technology", "leisure_food_travel"]); ", Jon Markman, March 6, 2008 at, Andrew McKillop (2006-12-13). [68] This genome was released in a basic format for scientists and plant breeders to use but was not a fully annotated sequence which was reported in some of the media. "[24] By 4000 BCE, wheat had reached the British Isles and Scandinavia. Add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets. }, } Being of bare sustenance/degraded status. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, Raw forms of these staples, however, are not edible and cannot be digested. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. dfpSlots['topslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/topslot', [], 'ad_topslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); There are many botanical classification systems used for wheat species, discussed in a separate article on wheat taxonomy. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654174' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, googletag.pubads().set("page_url", "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/wheat"); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [160, 600] }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, [8], Wheat futures are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade, Kansas City Board of Trade, and Minneapolis Grain Exchange, and have delivery dates in March (H), May (K), July (N), September (U), and December (Z).[127]. References:  Serial No. Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. Within a species, wheat cultivars are further classified by wheat breeders and farmers in terms of: The named classes of wheat in English are more or less the same in Canada as in the US, as broadly the same commercial cash crop strains can be found in both. [6] In 2017, world production of wheat was 772 million tonnes, with a forecast of 2019 production at 766 million tonnes,[7] making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. [89][90] 'cap': true iasLog("criterion : cdo_l = en"); II – Improving the Protein Content and Quality of Temperate Cereals: Wheat, Barley and Rye", Encyclopedia Life Support Systems (UNESCO-EOLSS), "The role of high lysine cereals in animal and human nutrition in Asia", "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28", "Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis", "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6", USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, "Whole Grain Resource for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs: A Guide to Meeting the Whole Grain-Rich criteria", "Nutritionally enhanced food crops; progress and perspectives", "Health Claim Notification for Whole Grain Foods", "Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (11. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, Whole wheat comes in a white bread option, too. In tropical areas, spot blotch (also known as Helminthosporium leaf blight) is also important. var mapping_houseslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([963, 0], []).addSize([0, 0], [300, 250]).build(); [22], The cultivation of emmer reached Greece, Cyprus and Indian subcontinent by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, and Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. 'cap': true Korol & A. Beiles & T. Fahima. wheat Definitions. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '705055' }}, Modern wheat breeding developed in the first years of the twentieth century and was closely linked to the development of Mendelian genetics. storage: { [119], In the 20th century, global wheat output expanded by about 5-fold, but until about 1955 most of this reflected increases in wheat crop area, with lesser (about 20%) increases in crop yields per unit area. (Pszenica jest najważniejszym zbożem uprawianym dzisiaj w Europie.) Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_ptl", "entry-lcp"); lectotype designated by Duistermaat, Blumea 32: 174 (1987), Direct quotation: Grundas ST: Chapter: Wheat: The Crop, in. [35] It has been theorised that this might be an effect of it having been domesticated and cultivated longer than any other plant. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. Leaves emerge from the shoot apical meristem in a telescoping fashion until the transition to reproduction ie. [123], In the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, as well as North China, irrigation has been a major contributor to increased grain output. priceGranularity: customGranularity, [124] In these low rainfall areas, better use of available soil-water (and better control of soil erosion) is achieved by retaining the stubble after harvesting and by minimizing tillage. [92], 100 g (3.5 oz) of hard red winter wheat contain about 12.6 g (0.44 oz) of protein, 1.5 g (0.053 oz) of total fat, 71 g (2.5 oz) of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 g (0.43 oz) of dietary fiber, and 3.2 mg (0.00011 oz) of iron (17% of the daily requirement); the same weight of hard red spring wheat contains about 15.4 g (0.54 oz) of protein, 1.9 g (0.067 oz) of total fat, 68 g (2.4 oz) of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 g (0.43 oz) of dietary fiber, and 3.6 mg (0.00013 oz) of iron (20% of the daily requirement). [117], Average wheat yields, measured in tonnes per hectare in 2014. }, [109] A 2017 study in mice demonstrated that ATIs exacerbate preexisting inflammation and might also worsen it at extraintestinal sites. [126], In the rapidly developing countries of Asia and Africa, westernization of diets associated with increasing prosperity is leading to growth in per capita demand for wheat at the expense of the other food staples. [14][86] Though they contain adequate amounts of the other essential amino acids, at least for adults, wheat proteins are deficient in the essential amino acid, lysine. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '541042770', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, googletag.pubads().setTargeting('cdo_alc_pr', pl_p.split(",")); Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.4 million hectares, 2014). [8] Ireland wheat farms were the most productive in 2014, with a nationwide average of 10.0 tonnes per hectare, followed by the Netherlands (9.2), and Germany, New Zealand and the United Kingdom (each with 8.6). Wild emmer is itself the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. urartu and a wild goatgrass such as Aegilops searsii or Ae. What does wheat mean? { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, ga('require', 'displayfeatures'); ... Freebase (1.00 / 1 vote) Rate this definition: Wheat. A są to pełne produkty albo cukry nieprzetworzone: owoce, warzywa, pełna mąka pszenna, brązowy ryż w ich naturalnych formach są bogate w błonnik. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_ei", "wheat"); bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776336', position: 'btf' }}, {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, [104] The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. Optimal crop management requires that the farmer have a detailed understanding of each stage of development in the growing plants. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, When the use of seed drills replaced broadcasting sowing of seed in the 18th century, another great increase in productivity occurred. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}]}]; [49][50], Wild grasses in the genus Triticum and related genera, and grasses such as rye have been a source of many disease-resistance traits for cultivated wheat breeding since the 1930s. [citation needed], The oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}, Red wheats may need bleaching; therefore, white wheats usually command higher prices than red wheats on the commodities market. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, { The definition of a grain is a tiny hard seed from a cereal grass, or a tiny piece of amount of something. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, ‘The staple grain is wheat and Pakistan is a predominantly bread-eating country.’ ‘The crop farmers have wheat and grain and corn and potatoes and squash and beans and lettuce.’ ‘They grow grain, sorghum, and wheat with rest periods in … grain definition: 1. a seed or seeds from a plant, especially a plant like a grass such as rice or wheat: 2. a very…. en.wiktionary.org. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, These remains were dated by Willem van Zeist and his assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to 8800 BCE. any of several cereal grains, of the genus Triticum, that yields flour as used in bakery.. a light brown colour, like that of wheat.. wheat pronunciation. [54], F1 hybrid wheat cultivars should not be confused with wheat cultivars deriving from standard plant breeding. The classes used in the United States are :[80][81]. Great expansion of wheat production occurred as new arable land was farmed in the Americas and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346698' }}, [7][8] Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Producing awns incurs a cost in grain number,[42] but wheat awns photosynthesise more water-use-efficiently than their leaves,[43] so awns are much more frequent in varieties of wheat grown in hot drought-prone countries than those generally seen in temperate countries. [16] In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter and disperse the spikelets. In 2014, the most productive crop yields for wheat were in Ireland, producing 10 tonnes per hectare. [13][14] When eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fiber. wheat - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, [93], Wheat is grown on more than 218,000,000 hectares (540,000,000 acres). var mapping_btmslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250], 'fluid']).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50], 'fluid']).build(); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 250] }}, 'max': 8, [33][34] Wheat is unusual among plants in having more stomata on the upper (adaxial) side of the leaf, than on the under (abaxial) side. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, This is the British English definition of wheat.View American English definition of wheat. "Identity preserved" wheat that has been stored and transported separately (at extra cost) usually fetches a higher price. This may explain why there is an increase of inflammation in people with preexisting diseases upon ingestion of ATIs-containing grains. {code: 'ad_rightslot2', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot2', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot2' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, Although landraces of wheat are no longer grown in Europe and North America, they continue to be important elsewhere. These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. dfpSlots['topslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/topslot', [[728, 90]], 'ad_topslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); [18][19] Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. [75] The hybridization that formed wild emmer (AABB) occurred in the wild, long before domestication,[74] and was driven by natural selection. [100], Manufacturers of foods containing wheat as a whole grain in specified amounts are allowed a health claim for marketing purposes in the United States, stating: "low fat diets rich in fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables may reduce the risk of some types of cancer, a disease associated with many factors" and "diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and rich in fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain some types of dietary fiber, particularly soluble fiber, may reduce the risk of heart disease, a disease associated with many factors". Q = Quality of Protein in terms of completeness without adjusting for digestability. Several B vitamins and other dietary minerals are in significant content. (Cookery) the grain … They can also damage the crop late in the season by eating the grain from the mature spike. [45] Commercial hybrid wheat seed has been produced using chemical hybridizing agents, plant growth regulators that selectively interfere with pollen development, or naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility systems. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, What whole grains really mean for the consumer, is more complete nutrition from the grain. Based on current supply and demand factors for agricultural commodities (e.g., changing diets in the emerging economies, biofuels, declining acreage under irrigation, growing global population, stagnant agricultural productivity growth[citation needed]), some commentators are predicting a long-term annual production shortfall of around 2% which, based on the highly inelastic demand curve for food crops, could lead to sustained price increases in excess of 10% a year - sufficient to double crop prices in seven years.[133][134][135]. var pbMobileHrSlots = [ Commercial white (or refined) flours, of which wheat is the most popular, have a reputation for being the best medium for making pastries and other baked goods, yet lacking in nutritional value. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, (Plants) any annual or biennial grass of the genus Triticum, native to the Mediterranean region and W Asia but widely cultivated, having erect flower spikes and light brown grains 2. Basic physiological investigation of these gas exchange processes has yielded valuable carbon isotope based methods that are used for breeding wheat varieties with improved water-use efficiency. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, Whole Grain Bread. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, [139] A wide range of organisms infect wheat, of which the most important are viruses and fungi.[140]. The popularity of foods made from wheat flour creates a large demand for the grain, even in economies with significant food surpluses. expires: 60 [64][65][66][67], In 2010, a team of UK scientists funded by BBSRC announced they had decoded the wheat genome for the first time (95% of the genome of a variety of wheat known as Chinese Spring line 42). googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_c", ["science_geographic_locales", "business_financial_industrial_technology", "leisure_food_travel"]); Both whole grain and whole wheat contain all three parts of the grain kernel — the bran, endosperm, and germ. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, In ancient times, wheat was often considered a luxury grain because it had lower yield but better taste and digestibility than competitors like rye. name: "_pubcid", Taking this concept, grain thus becomes a term describing all that is lame …

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